## Insulation Basics – Ventilation

A significant factor in the comfort of you house is the ‘Ventilation Rate’.

No one likes cold draughts in winter.. . . and hot air creeping in during summer can be equally unwelcoming.

So how do you calculate heat losses due to ventilation?

Well it starts by deciding how many air changes per hour (ac/hr) you have.

That is how often is the air in the areas you want to heat, or cool, replaced.

### Typical ventilation rates

Its hard to measure the actual changes without specialist equipment however here are some typical values:

• Old weatherboard property – More than 2ac/hr
• Typical new house – Around 1 ac/hr
• Well draft sealed house – 0.5ac/hr

### Calculations

To calculate the ventilation heat loss the following formula is used:

Qv = 0.36 x V x N

Qv – Ventilation heat loss in in W/degree C
V – Volume in cubic m of space being heated or cooled
N – Number of air changes per hour

So for a typical house with a floor area of 250m2 with 2.3m ceilings:

Qv = 0.36 x (250 x 2.3) x 1 = 207W/degrees C

To keep this house at 20 degrees with an outside temperature of 10 degrees would need 207 x 10 watts = 2.07kw/hour…… just for ventilation losses

A well draft sealed house will reduce the heating required to 1.04kw/hour. (You would be saving \$1 every five hours, with more saving on colder nights)

### WARNING

If you have got a flue less heater (such as portable gas heaters, kerosene heaters or bio ethanol heaters) you do need some ventilation to keep a safe level of oxygen in the room.

## Condensation

Condensation,  a minor inconvenience,  or a major problem?

A little condensation on windows is easily dealt with, . . . . . .  but heavy condensation in poorly ventilated corners can lead to mould damaging your walls, ceilings, or even your clothes.

## Why does Condensation Occur

Condensation in a building occurs when warm air, containing water vapour, comes into contact with a cold surface.

As the air cools it can’t hold as much water vapour so the excess changes into liquid water which is deposited on the cold surface.

The  water usually appears as surface condensation as water droplets or water film on cold surfaces, typically windows.

Condensation occurring on cold walls and ceilings is a major issue as it is when mold problems start. Of particular risk are wardrobes on  an external wall as there is a cold surface and a lack of ventilation.

## Sources of Water

Here are five main sources of water vapour in the home

• People A typical adult will lose around 0.8L/day of water, half from skin evaporation, and half from breathing.
• Bathrooms Not just the obvious showers and baths, its also those drying towels and bathrobes
• Kitchen – Kettles, Pans, dishwasher, and the microwave will add water vapour
• Un-Flued Combustion – Portable Gas Heaters, Gas Hobs, Bio Ethanol Heaters, even Candles, all emit water vapour into the room as they burn.
• Laundry – Unvented Tumble driers, Airing Clothes.
• Evaporative Cooling – Because it is mainly used in summer less of a problem, but can be an issue on cold nights.

## Preventing Condensation Damage

Action to prevent condensation damage involves looking at both insulation and ventilation.

Insulation. Additional insulation in walls or ceiling will keep those surfaces warmer which will reduce the risk of condensation damage in most rooms .

Ventilation In bathrooms and kitchens the more moisture laden air means that insulation by itself will not be enough. The moist air needs to be effectively extracted to prevent condensation being an issue. (Although I have previously posted about Heat Loss due to Ventilation some  ventilation is  needed throughout the house)

## Role of Double Glazing

Double glazing is often suggested as an answer to condensation however this is not really the case. As the windows are now less cold there is less surface condensation on the windows, so it looks like the issue has gone away. The problem is that without removing the moisture laden air the risk of condensation on walls and ceilings is increased.